St. Mary the Mother of God
St. Mary, the virgin, who bore Jesus Christ, in Bethlehem (Mt. 2:1-12, Lk. 2:6-7) is remembered and honored throughout the year by the Armenian Church in a number of holidays, including the Annunciation (April 7), her Birth (Sept. 8), her Conception by her aged parents Anna and Joachim (December 9), and her Assumption (Dormition) into Heaven (mid-August). A large number of Armenian churches bear the name of the Holy Mother of God.
St. John the Baptist
St. John the Baptist, forerunner of Christ, urged people to mend their ways in anticipation of His coming. The son of Mary's cousin Elizabeth he ,leaped for joy, in the womb when his mother visited Mary, who was pregnant with Jesus. (Luke 1:57). He led an ascetic life and attracted a following in search of spiritual enlightenment. At the River Jordan he baptized Jesus, for which he was thereafter known as the ,Baptist., He is known in Armenian as Garabed, and the Armenian Church built many churches and chapels in his name. He was martyred at the request of King Herod's daughter Salome, who asked for ,his head on a platter., (Mt. 14:1-12). The Armenian Church remembers St. John on four holidays: his birth (on the Thursday after the naming of the Lord), his beheading (on the Saturday before the Sunday after Easter), with St. Athanasius (on the Thursday after the first Sunday of Pentecost - a saint's day established by St. Gregory the Illuminator), and with the Prophet Job, on the Thursday after the third Sunday after the Assumption. St. Stephen the First Martyr and Deacon
St. Stephen the First Martyr and Deacon
St. Stephen was one of Jesus' 70 chosen disciples. He and 6 others were appointed the early Church's table servants (deacons) under St. Peter. In the book of Acts of the Apostles, St. Stephen is described as ,a man full of grace and the Holy Spirit, and he perforemed ,great wonders and miraculous signs among the people., (Acts 6:5-8) St. Stephen was martyred in Jerusalem with the approval of Saul (who later became the apostle Paul), and is revered throughout Christendom as the First Martyr. In the Greek Church, St. Stephen is remembered on August 2 and December 27, and in the Roman Catholic Church on May 7 and August 3. The Armenian Church remembers St. Stephen on Deacon's Day, December 24.
Sts. Thaddeus and Bartholomew
Sts. Thaddeus and Bartholomew, two of Jesus' twelve disciples, brought Christianity to Armenia shortly after the resurrection, whence the Apostolic origin of the Armenian Church. St. Thaddeus is reported to be the disciple that responded to the letter from King Abgar to Christ with a visit to Edessa, bringing with him the spear that pierced Christ's side, original kept at Ayrivank (Holy Geghard Monastery (Arm. geghard = ‘lance')) and is now kept at Holy Etchmiadzin. He was a bold missionary, converting St. Sandukht, the daughter of the Armenian King Sanatruk. He was martyred and his tomb is in present-day northern Iran , near Maku. St. Bartholomew followed in the apostle Thaddeus' footsteps, arriving in Armenia around the time of St. Sandukht's martyrdom. He converted King Sanadruk's sister, St. Volouhi. Both were martyred in Armenia . St. Bartholomew was buried in Albacus, south east of Lake Van . The Armenian Church remembers Sts. Thaddeus and Bartholomew in December.
St. Gregory the Illuminator (239 – 325/326)
St. Gregory the Illuminator is the patron saint of the the Armenian Church and a saint of the universal church. He was the first Catholicos of the Armenian Church (302-325). In 301, he and St. Trdat, King of Armenia, proclaimed Christianity Armenia's state religion, making Armenian the first state to accept Christianity as its state religion. In 303, the Cathedral of Holy Etchmiadzin was built based on St. Gregory's vision of Christ descending. Based on this vision as well, the Cathedrals of St. Gayane, St. Hripsime and St. Shoghakat were also built.Being a saint of the universal church, St. Gregory is remembered on Sept. 30 each year by both the Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches. As the patron saint of the Armenian Church, St. Gregory is remembered on a number of holy days throughout the year: Capitivity in the Pit (on the Saturday before the 6th Sunday of Lent)Deliverance from the Pit (on the Saturday before the 3rd Sunday after Pentecost) Discovery of his Relics (on the Satruday before the 4th Sunday after Pentecost)
St. Aristakes (ca. 264-333)
Armenian Church father, successor Catholicos (325-333), was the youngest son of St. Gregory the Illuminator. He took part in the First Ecumenical Council of Nicaea (325) and instituted the Nicene Creed in Armenia . St. Aristakes' older brother, St. Vertanes, succeeded him as Catholicos and is also honored on this feast day. St. Aristakes is remembered on the saints' day devoted to the Sons and Grandsons of St. Gregory the Illuminator, which is usually celebrated on the Saturday after the 4th Sunday after the Nativity or, in years when Easter comes early, on the Saturday after the 3rd Sunday after the Transfiguration.
St. Vertanes (262 – 341)
St. Vertanes I, the elder son of St. Gregory the Illuminator, was Catholicos from 333-341, succeeding his younger brother Aristakes. He was a soldier before his ordination. St. Vertanes is remembered by the Armenian Church on the saints day devoted to the ,Sons and Grandsons of St. Gregory,, which is usually celebrated on the Saturday after the 4th Sunday after the Nativity or, in years when Easter come early, it is celebrated in on the Saturday after the 3rd Sunday after the Transfiguration. The Pueri (Mankunk) hymn of the day contains verses dedicated to him: ,Elected Good shepherd of the thinking flock of Christ, arising from the good stock of the Father of Light.
St. Housig (295 – 347)
St. Housig, grandson of St. Gregory and Armenian Catholicos (341-347), succeeded his father St. Vertanes. He defended the Church against secular intermeddling and was eventually martyred in 347. His saint's day is usually celebrated on the Saturday after the 4th Sunday after the Nativity or, in years when Easter come early, it is celebrated in on the Saturday after the 3rd Sunday .
St. Grigoris (295 – 337/338)
St. Grigoris, grandson of St. Gregory and son of St. Vertanes, was sent by his grandfather as a missionary in the Caucasus and was martyred at a young age. He is remembered on two occasions annually: first, with the ,Sons and Grandsons of St. Gregory, which is usually celebrated on the Saturday after the 4th Sunday after the Nativity or, in years when Easter come early, on the Saturday after the 3rd Sunday after the Transfiguration; second, on the occasion of the discover his relics, on the Monday after the 5th Sunday after the Exaltation of the Cross.
St. Nersess the Great (329 – 373)
St. Nerses the Great, Catholicos (353-373), was the son of St. Vertanes and great grandson of St. Gregory the Illuminator. Although a layman, the people wanted him to become Catholicos. He had one son, St. Sahak, co-inventor of the Armenian Alphabet. He was a tireless servant of the church and the people, dedicated to the mission of charity and enlightenment. He built and sponsored many hospitals, orphanages, old age homes and religious communities, for which reason he was called the ,Enlightener of the Heart. The Armenian Church remembers St. Nerses and his co-worker, St. Khat, on the Saturday after the Feast of Holy Etchmiadzin in June-July each year.
St. Sahak (348 – 439)
St. Sahak, Catholicos from 387 to 436, was the son of Nerses the Great and grandfather of St. Vartan Mamikonian. He played a pivotal role in the invention of the Armenian alphabet and translation of the Bible and Church services into the Armenian vernacular. He established the Armenian Directorium of Feasts. He also wrote many hymns, including the hymn to the Raising of Lazarus, the Canon of Palm Sunday, and many of the hymns of Holy Week. The Armenian Church remembers St. Sahak on two holy days: (1) the week after St. Sarkis, (2) together with St. Mesrop, on the Thursday after the fourth Sunday of Pentecost.
St. Daniel ( anknown – 347 ? .)
St. Daniel the Syrian (?-347) is a Christian martyr, venerated by the Armenian Church. He was a prominent preacher and miracle worker, and he lived an ascetic life. He was a disciple of St. Gregory the Illuminator, later serving as administrator of the churches under the oversight of the Catholicos. St. Daniel is remembered during the saints' day dedicated to the Sons and Grandson's of St. Gregory, which is usually celebrated on the Saturday after the 4th Sunday after the Nativity or, in years when Easter come early, it is celebrated on the Saturday after the 3rd Sunday after the Transfiguration. He is also remembered specifically in the last verse of the Mankunk (Pueri) sharakan of the day, beginning with the words, ,The heavenly on earth with discipline . . .,
St. Khat the Bishop (370)
St. Khat, the bishop, worked closely with the Catholicos St. Nerses the Great in the later half of the 4th century. St. Nerses ordained him bishop of Bagrevand, to the west of Lake Van , and he oversaw many of St. Nerses' charitable works. The Armenian historian Paustos Biwzand writes ,he performed many miracles, mighty works, and healings., Once he chastised the Armenian King Arshag, who ordered him stoned. St. Khat is remembered along with St. Nerses the Great, on the Saturday following the Feast of Holy Etchmiadzin in June-July each year.
St. Mesrob Mashtots (ca. 360 – 440)
St. Mesrop was the inventor of the Armenian alphabet, teacher and founder of the circle of translators who translated the Bible and church services into Armenian, and a Christian missionary. Since the middle ages, the series of Hymns of Penance have been attributed to him, including the well known, ,I fall before you,, ,Tossed on the Sea of Life,, and ,Most Merciful Father,, which are among the first orginal Armenian hymns. St. Mesrop is remembered by the Armenian Church on three moveable holy days: (1) with St. Sahak, on the Saturday two weeks after the Fast of the Catechumens (in February), (2) on the Thursday, 33 days after Pentecost, (3) Feast of the Holy Translators (the second Saturday of October).
St. Gregory of Narek ( 947 - 1003 )
St. Gregory of Narek is revered by the Armenian Church as a theologian, poet and musician. A leading figure in the Armenian Renaissance, he was educated at Narek Vank on the south shore of Lake Van , under the tutelage of its abbot and his uncle, Anania Narekatsi. His Book of Prayer (the fully searchable English text is available online at www.stgregoryofnarek.am) (sometimes called the Book of Lamentations), known as the Narek among the Armenian people is a jewel of Christian spiritual literature. He also wrote many odes and theological studies. St. Gregory of Narek is remembered twice each year by the Armenian Church, first in January and then on the second Saturday of October, on Holy Translators' Day, along with the creators of the alphabet, translators of the Bible, and other learned churchmen.
St. Nerses Klayetsee (Shnorhali) (1100-1173)
St. Nerses IV Kla, Catholicos from 1166-1173, was from the city of Hromkla (in Cilicia ). Author, musician, poet, theologian, St. Nerses enriched the Armenian Church and its services with many hymns, prayers, and services. His prayer, ,In Faith I Confess, (link to PDF file) is a jewel of Christian spirituality, consisting of 24 verses for the 24 hours of the day, which he called a prayer for all Christian faithful. It has been translated into over 36 languages languages. He also wrote the General Epistle, describing Christian society, the Lament for Edessa , which had been mercilessly sacked by the Moslems in 1144, and a spiritual poem, Jesus Son. He also wrote the Sunrise (Arevakal), Compline (Khaghaghakan), and Night Service (Hanksdyan), three of the 8 daily services in the Armenian Book of Hours. St. Nerses is remembered by the Armenian Church during the Feast of the Holy Translators.
St. John of Vorotn (1315 – 1386)
St. John of Vorotn is remembered by the Armenian church as a theologian, writer and teacher. He was the son of Prince Ivane of Siwnik. He received his education at the University of Gladzor (near present-day Yegheknadzor) under the tutelage of Yesayi Nshetsi. Notable among his writings are his Commentary on the Book of Job, Commentary on the Gospel according to Matthew, and Commentary on the 14 Letters of Paul. He taught at the school and monastery of Tatev, where his students included St. Gregory of Tatev. The Armenian Church remembers him on the Saturday after the 4th Sunday of Lent, with St. Gregory of Tatev, St. John of Jerusalem and St. John of Odzoun.
St. Gregory of Datev (1346 – 1409)
St. Gregory of Tatev is honored by the Armenian Church as a renowned theologian, teacher, philosopher, miniaturist and musician. He was a student of St. Hovnan Vorotnetsi at the school associated with Tatev Monastery. His ,Book of Questions, and ,Treasury of Faith, are key works of Armenian theology and doctrine. The Armenian Church remembers St. Gregory of Tatev on the Saturday before the 4th Sunday of Lent.
St. Moses of Datev (1578 – 1632)
t. Moses III Tatevatsi, was Catholicos from 1629 to 1632. He received his education at Datev monastery in southern Armenia , near Sisian. Before becoming Catholicos he established and developed many schools around Armenia . Around 1611 he resided in Yerevan , preached at St. Kathoghike Astvatsatsin Church ( Yerevan 's oldest parish church from the 13th cent. in the courtyard at Sayat Nova and Abovian Streets). He rebuilt the St. Anania cloister (at St. Zoravor Church, in Central Yerevan , where he is entombed). Although he has not been canonized a saint (the last canonized saint of the Armenian Church was the 14th century scholastic monk, St. Grigor Tatevatsi), he is remembered in the intercessions with St. Grigor and revered as a saint.
This is refers to all the saints and church fathers named Gregory, such as, St. Gregory the Illuminator, St. Gregory of Nazianzus, St. Gregory of Narek, and many other holy men name Gregory. Gregory is a Greek word that means ‘vigilant' or ‘awake'.
This refers collectively to the saints and church fathers named Nerses, such as St. Nersess the Great and St. Nerses Shnorhali, and other holy men named Nerses. Nerses is a Persian name, often written Nerseh.
St. Paulus (the Hermit) (died 342)
t. Paulus (died 342), a desert father, is known as the first hermit, who took up the solitary life in the desert near Thebes after his brother-in-law threatened to expose him as a Christian to the authorities. His solitary life was interrupted by St. Anthony. He was buried in the cloak of St. Athanasius by St. Anthony, and according to legend, desert lions came and helped St. Anthony dig the grave for the aged hermit. The Greek and Roman Churches remember St. Paulus on January 15. The Armenian Church remembers him along with the Desert Fathers (Paulus, Evagrius, Nilus, Serapion and others, on the Saturday preceeding the second Sunday of Advent.
St. Anthony of the Desert
St. Anthony, a desert father, is one of the founders of monasticism and a saint of the universal church. The story of his life is related to us primarily by his contemporary and friend St. Athanasius. St. Anthony was born to a noble family in 251, in the village of Koma in Egypt . At the age of twenty he inherited his parents' property and in accordance with the Gospel message, he sold it and distributed it to the poor. He dedicated himself to the spiritual life, filled with prayer, fasting and good works. He spent nearly 35 years in solitude, resisting many temptations and withstanding many physical torments. In 305, when he was already 55 years old, he acquiesed to the requests of the other nearby ascetics and assumed the responsibilities of their spiritual instructor. He presented and taught them the rules of monastic life, laying the foundation for later monasticism. Through his preaching and his opposition to Arianism (a heresy denying the divinity of Christ), he strengthened the Church. He died in 355 at the age of 105. The Greek and Roman Churches remember St. Anthony on January 17. The Armenian Church remembers him on the Saturday following the Octave of the Theophany (in January).
St. Paul (4 - 5th cent.)
St. Paul , the Simple, was desert father and disciple of St. Anthony. At the age of 60, he took up the solitary ascetic life upon learning of his wife's infidelity. He was known for many miracles and healing the sick. He lived past the aged of 100. The Greek and Roman Churches remember him on March 7. The Armenian Church remembers him along with the Desert Fathers (Paulus, Evagrius, Nilus, Serapion and others, on the Saturday preceeding the second Sunday of Advent.
St. Macarius (300-390)
t. Marcarius was one of the desert fathers of Egypt . A famous founder of monasticism, he led a solitary life in the desert of Skete . He followed the stoic teachings of Marcus Aurelius and was the abbot of a monastic community. The Armenian Church remembers him with the other desert fathers during the week following the second Sunday of Advent.
St. Onophrius (V Cent.)
t. Onophrius was a fifth century desert father and saint of the universal church who lived near Thebes in Egypt . He lived a solitary, ascetic life, seeking to emulate the prophet Elijah and John the Baptist, and according to the Haysmavurk (Armenian Saints' Lives) ,he did not see a person's face in 60 years., The Greek and Roman Churches remember him on September 30. The Armenian Church remembers him on the Saturday following the Octave of the Theophany (in January).
Mark the Abbot (IV - V century)
Mark the Abbot was a 4th-5th century desert father and saint of the universal church. He was born and educated in Athens . After his parent's death, he departed for Egypt and pursued an ascetic life in the desert, near present-day northern Sudan . While St. Marcus is not separately remembered during a holy day in the Armenian Church calendar, his name is remembered each Sunday among the holy anchorites. His disciples included St. Serapion, another desert father, who is remembered by the Armenian Church in early December.
St. Serapion (IV - V cent.)
St. Serapion was a desert father and saint of the universal church. A Bishop of Alexandria, he was a contemporary and disciple of St. Anthony. According to legend, St. Anthony left in his will two cloaks, one for St. Serapion and the other for St. Athanasius. He spent more than 67 years in the desert as an ascetic. In addition to being a staunch opponent of the Arian heresy (denying the divinity of Christ), he wrote a refutation of Manicheism (the belief that evil is a separate force, struggling against good). The Armenian Church remembers St. Serapion with the other desert fathers on the Saturday following the second Sunday of Advent.
St. Nilus (V cent.)
St. Nilus was a fifth century desert father, disciple of St. John Chrysostom. He was born to a noble family in the days of Theodosius II, and held a high position in the court. However, he left his secular ambitions behind. He and his son became monks in the Sinai Desert and his wife and daughter joined a convent. A theologian and scholar at Mt. Sinai Monastery, he left many works of theology, Armenian translations of which were widely known in the middle ages. The Greek and Roman Churches remember him on November 12. The Armenian Church remembers him with the other desert fathers, on the Saturday before the third Sunday of Advent.
St. Arsenius (IV cent.)
t. Arsen (Arsenius) is a 4th century father and saint of the universal church. Of Roman origin, St. Arsneius was born in 345 to a noble family. In 394, when he was almost fifty years old, he decided to leave the palace. He set out for Egypt , where he became a monk and disciple of St. John the Dwarf. Renouncing all worldly riches, he became a hermit and lived an ascetic life. The Greek and Roman churches remember him on November 12. His saint's day in the Armenian Church falls during the week following the second Sunday of Advent. On that day, the Armenian Church also remembers other Desert Fathers of Egypt, including Paul the Hermit, Paul the Simple, Evagrius, Nilus, Serapion, Macarios and others.
St. Evagrius (ca. 346-ca. 400)
St. Evagrius of Pontus was a Greek monastic teacher and church father. He was a student of St. Basil of Caesarea and St. Gregory Nazianzus. Prayer had a prominent place in his teachings. In his work ,On Prayer, he for the first time expounded the concept of ,mental prayer,, which in his view ,was a constant rational communication with God., The Armenian Church remembers St. Evagrius on the Saturday after the second Sunday of Advent.
St. Barsam or Parsemius ( II cent. )
St. Barsam (Parsemius) was a second-century hermit, venerated in as a saint in the Greek, Roman and Armenian Churches . According to those witnesses, in the days of the Roman Emperor Trajan, St. Barsam was the Bishop of Edessa. He was arrested and tortured; however, as he was about to be executed, an amnesty was issued by the Emperor. Having been spared by God's will, the bishop continued his saintly life and died at a ripe old age. The Greek and Roman Churches remember him on January 29 or 30th. The Armenian Church remembers him on the Thursday following the fourth Sunday after the Transfiguration.
his refers collectively to all the saints and church fathers named John, such as John the Baptist, the apostle John, St. John Crysostom and St. Hovhannes Odznetsi and other holy men named John. John is a Hebrew name meaning ‘God is merciful.'
This refers to collectively to the saints and church fathers named Simeon, such as Simeon the elder, who prophesied at Christ's presentation in the Temple, Simon and the 70 translators who prepared the Greek translation of the Bible, known as the Septuagint (70 in Latin) in the 2nd cent. BC. Simon is a Hebrew name meaning ‘harken, listen'.
St. Voskians (I cant.)
Voskians were a group of Christian martyrs and monastics from the first century. Many of them were students of St. Thaddeus. According to tradition, St. Thaddeus ordained as their leader a priest called Chrysos (Greek for gold, Armenian Voski), whence the group came to be known as the Voskians. In the Armenian Directorium (Church Calendar), they are remembered under the rubric ,Priests., The Armenian Church remembers them on the Thursday before Arajavorats Fast or on the Thursday before the Presentation of the Lord in the Temple . On that day, the Pueri (Mankunk) hymn is ,You who were worthy, which is also used for the Levavi (Hambardzi) hymn of the day.
St. Sukiasians ( I - II cent.)
The Sukiasians were a second century Christian community, named for their leader Sukias. The were martyred by the Gigianos, King of the Albanians around 150 AD. According to the Armenian Book of Saints' Lives, St. Gregory the Illuminator built a chapel on the sie of their martyrdom. The Armenian Church remembers the Sukiasians on the seventh day of the Feast of the Catechumens or the Tuesday before the Presentation of the Lord in the Temple .
t. Abgar, according to tradition, was king of the city of Edessa , a predominantly Armenian city in the 1st century, when he accepted Christianity. According to the father of Armenian History, St. Movses Khorenatsi, St. Abgar was the son of the Parthian King Arsham and King of Armenia (History of Armenia, Bk. 2, ch. 26-29). According to the Koran, Edessa (modern Urfa , located between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in Western Armenia ) was the birthplace of Abraham. Among Armenians Edessa is also remembered as the city where St. Mesrop Mashdots invented the Armenian alphabet. Eusebius (Arm. Sebeos) (260-341), the Father of Church History, records the story of King Abgar's conversion as follows: King Abgar, having become ill with a terrible disease and having heard of Christ's miracles of healing, sent a letter to Christ inviting Christ to Edessa . The King's messenger, Anania, arrived around the time of the Crucifixion. The Lord sent the impression of his face on a towel through his disciple Thaddeus (Addai), the original ,icon made without hands, venerated throughout Byzantine Orthodoxy. The King was cured by his faith and converted himself and his Armenian realm to Christianity. St. Abgar is remembered each Sunday during the Intercessions before the Lord's Prayer as a trailblazer among the Christian Kings, including St. Trdat who converted Armenia to Christianity in 301 AD and Emperor Constantine who converted the Roman Empire to Christianity in 313 AD.
Roman Emperor St. Constantine (324 -337) is a saint of the universal church, remember for his pivotal role in the acceptance of Christianity in the Roman Empire and the spread of Christianity as a world religion. He was the Roman Emperor who declared official tolerance of Christianity of the Roman Empire in 313 by the Edict of Milan. His edict of toleration had been prompted by a miraculous event the year before. Before the decisive Battle of Milvian Bridge (outside of Rome) in 312, he saw the Greek letters Chi and Rho (the first two letters of Christ in Greek) in the sky and heard a voice saying, ,in hoc signo vinces, (,in this sign you will conquer,), which he took as an omen portending victory in his power struggle for control of the Roman Empire. He put the sign (overlapping Chi-Rho) on his soldiers' shields, won the battle, and consolidated his power as Roman Emperor. In 325 he convened the Council of Nicaea to resolve doctrinal disputes in the church. He also commissioned the construction of the Church of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem as well as the Upper House and the Basilica of Bethlehem. His aged mother, St. Helena, a Briton (daughter of King Coel of the nursery rhyme ,Old King Cole,, according to the English Chronicler Geoffrey of Monmouth (12th c.)) made a pilgrimage to the Holy Land in 326 to oversee the construction of the Church of the Holy Sepulcher. During the pilgrimage she recovered the relics of the Cross (which event the Armenian Church celebrates at the end of October, six weeks after the Tabernacle Feast of the Exaltation of the Cross (the Sunday between Sept. 11-17)). Under Emperor Constantine's unofficial sponsorship of Christianity accelerated its spread throughout the Roman Empire , a turning point in world history.
St. Drtad (250 – 330)
St. Drtad III, the Great, is one of the Christian Kings remembered in the intercessions before communion, along with King Abgar of Edessa and Emperor Constantine of Rome . He was a member of the Arshakuni dynasty and King of Armenia from 287 to 330. He was crowned by Emperor Diocletian in Rome . After he was cured of a terrible disease by St. Gregory the Illuminator He established Christianity as Armenia 's state religion. Although he had harshly persecuted Christians before his conversion, including the martyrdom of Sts. Gayane and Hripsime, to nuns from Rome , and the imprisonment of St. Gregory in Khor Virap for more than a decade, after his conversion, he fervently supported the spread of Christianity, participating in the construction of Holy Etchmiadzin, St. Gayane, St. Hripsime and St. Shoghkat cathedrals. St. Drtad is remembered by the Armenian Church on the Saturday after the 5th Sunday after Pentecost, along with his queen, St. Ashkhen and his sister St. Khosrovidukht, both of whom were believers and played a major role in his conversion. On this day, the hymn ,To the Kings, is sung.
St. Theodosius (346 – 395)
St. Theodosius, the Great, Roman Emperor from 379 to 395, is revered by the universal church. He is remembered as a Christian King in the Intercessions of the Armenian Badarak. He was born in Spain , to the family of a Christian military man. During his reign, in 381, he convened the 2nd Eucumenical Council, which condemned Arianism and established the divinity of Christ as the truth. St. Theodosius is remembered on a special day, only in the Armenian and Greek churches, but not in the Roman Catholic Church. The Greeks celebrate his saint's day on January 17. The Armenian Church also remembers him. It is noteworthy that the Greek Church also commemorates Theodosius II (408-450), known for his Code of Laws and his anti-monophysite Christology (at the ,Robber, Ecumenical Council (at Ephesus in 449), whereas the Armenian Church does not. However, in the Intercession for Christian Kings in the Armenian Badarak, the form of remembrance is plural (Arm. Teodosits), referring to both, Theodosius I and II.
St. John Chrysostom ( 347/354 – 407)
St. John Chrysostom (Golden Mouth - in Armenian Voskeberan) is a venerated saint of the universal church who is known as one of the 12 Doctors of the Church. Patriarch of Constantinople from 398 to 404, he has left a rich legacy of commentaries, sermons, speeches and other works. They are characteristic of the Antioch school of theology, with its unique historic and linguistic traits. Being a saint of the universal church, he is remembered by the Orthodox and Roman Catholic Churches on fixed holy day, September 30. The Armenian Church remembers St. John Chrysostom twice each year: first, on the Thursday after the 7th Sunday after Exaltation of the Cross and on the last Saturday of October along with the 12 Doctors of the Church.